The hottest electricity reform mode policy market

2022-07-25
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Yunnan Electricity Reform Mode: "policy" + "market" is the core element

the core content of the "Yunnan mode" of electricity reform is to build an increasingly perfect, efficient, standardized, fair and just electricity trading market. However, the market cannot solve all problems. Many practical problems need to be solved through reform and development. At the same time, we must give full play to the mandatory role of national macro-control and national policies to ensure the implementation of national strategies and the realization of the overall interests of the country

on November 3, 2017, the national development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration organized a "special meeting on power system reform" in Beijing to discuss how to implement power system reform. At the meeting, Yang Qiang, general manager of Kunming Electric Power Trading Center Co., Ltd., introduced the construction and operation of the electric power trading center and its experience. The "Yunnan model" of electric power reform was once again recognized at the national level

since the implementation of the new electricity reform in March 2015, Yunnan has been at the forefront of the national electricity reform, and its reform results have been highly concerned by all walks of life. In fact, as early as 2014, Yunnan Province launched the pilot of power market trading, and completed the market trading of nearly 20billion kwh that year. In november2015, Yunnan Province was identified as one of the first comprehensive pilot provinces of power reform in China; On april6,2016, the CPC Yunnan Provincial Committee and the people's Government of Yunnan Province issued a notice on the pilot scheme for further deepening the reform of the power system in Yunnan Province; In August, 2016, Kunming Electric Power Trading Center was put into operation. Yunnan has an extraordinary determination and strength to accelerate the reform of power market

at the beginning of this year, the national development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration held an on-site meeting on power system reform in Yunnan. At the meeting, the relevant leaders of the National Energy Administration highly affirmed the work of Yunnan power reform: "all parties pay attention to politics in the reform, consider the overall situation in action, coordinate clearly, and focus on Coordination in the process. They started early, made great efforts, had bright spots, and achieved good results." Lian Weiliang, deputy director of the national development and Reform Commission, also pointed out that Yunnan Province has played a positive role in exploring ways, drawing experience and demonstrating in the new round of power system reform

in order to deeply understand the "Yunnan model" of power reform, this journal recently went to Kunming for investigation, visited power generation enterprises, power users, Kunming power trading center and relevant government departments, and tried to explore the internal laws of China's power market construction and power reform from the "Yunnan model"

supply far exceeds demand, forcing the birth of the prototype of "Yunnan model"

Yunnan is the cradle of China's hydropower industry. In 1912, the shilongba hydropower station in Kunming was built for power generation, which was the first hydropower station built in the mainland of China with the ecological label I marked on 50 of the products

after a century of development, nearly a thousand hydropower stations have been built on the trunk and tributaries of Lancang River, Jinsha River and Nu River in Yunnan Province. By the end of October 2017, the installed capacity of full caliber power supply in Yunnan Province was 87.43 million kW (including 3.2 million kW in Xiangjiaba), including 61.31 million kW in hydropower, accounting for 70.1% of the total installed capacity. Yunnan hydropower not only plays an important role in the economic development of the province, but also its regional strategic position is becoming more and more important. Yunnan's power transmission not only spans two provinces, but also connects Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and other countries. With the implementation of the "the Belt and Road", Bangladesh China India Myanmar economic corridor, Yangtze River economic belt, Pan Pearl River Delta economic belt and other strategies, Yunnan will gradually become a transnational and cross regional power exchange hub and the world's largest clean power trading center

the rapid development of hydropower in Yunnan began during the 12th Five Year Plan period. The state vigorously implemented the western development strategy. As a province rich in high-quality hydropower resources, Yunnan Province set off a climax of hydropower construction. During the "12th Five Year Plan" period, the installed capacity of hydropower in Yunnan increased by double-digit annual growth rate. However, as China's economic development enters the new normal, the growth rate of power demand slows down year by year, from 11.7% in 2011 to 0.5% in 2015. The power supply in Yunnan Province far exceeds the power demand, forming a large amount of waste water. According to the statistics of relevant national departments, the waste water and electricity in Yunnan Province in 2014, 2015 and 2016 were 16.8 billion kwh, 15.3 billion kWh and 31.4 billion kwh respectively. In 2014, the loss of hydropower enterprises reached 31%; In the same period, the utilization hours of thermal power in Yunnan dropped significantly to less than 1500 hours. Thermal power enterprises have been losing money for consecutive years since 2013. The enterprise debt ratio has reached 150%, and some enterprises have even reached 200%; As the second largest economic pillar of Yunnan Province, the power industry has encountered unprecedented development bottlenecks

according to the person in charge of relevant government departments in Yunnan Province, the economic development of Yunnan Province fell into a continuous downturn in 2014. On the one hand, there is a large amount of waste water from Yunnan hydropower, and on the other hand, the raw material processing industry with high energy load as the main body is under construction. At the most serious time, the operating rate of entity enterprises is less than 20%. In order to boost Yunnan's economy, under multiple pressures, Yunnan Province took the lead in launching the electricity reform in China. In 2014, Yunnan Province launched the first pilot project of bidding for surplus hydropower in flood season and direct power purchase by large users. Yunnan power trading center was established in Yunnan power company as a market-oriented trading platform, and more than 70 industrial enterprises participated in market transactions. In that year, the market-oriented trading of surplus hydropower was 9billion kwh, reaching a direct transaction of more than 7billion kwh between Yunnan Metallurgical Group and Jinghong Power Plant of Huaneng Lancang River company. As the first power trading center in China, Yunnan power trading center undertakes the task of market-oriented trading of surplus hydropower, which has become the initial prototype of Yunnan power market construction

the basic framework of "Yunnan model" is set for the comprehensive pilot of power reform

Yunnan is the first batch of comprehensive pilot provinces for the new round of power system reform. Under the framework of power reform document No. 9 and its supporting documents, on April 6th, 2016, Yunnan Province formulated and issued the pilot plan for further deepening power system reform in Yunnan Province Based on the actual situation, and established a leading group for power system reform in Yunnan Province, with the governor as the group leader and three vice governors as deputy group leaders, responsible for formulating practical special reform work plans and relevant supporting measures to ensure the smooth progress of power reform, Yunnan Province has almost invited all the internationally renowned power reform experts, and has carried out 8 overall trainings, which is also evident in its strength and determination

according to professionals involved in the design of power reform scheme, Yunnan power reform, which was pushed forward at full speed in 2016, focused on optimizing the structure, made every effort to promote the construction of power market, successively completed key reform tasks such as the reform of transmission and distribution electricity price and the establishment of trading institutions, orderly promoted the reform of power generation and utilization plan, fully reflected that the market played a decisive role in resource allocation, and established a multi cycle and multi variety power trading system, Introduce power selling companies to participate in the transaction, and continuously improve the market-oriented transaction mechanism

as early as March 15, 2016, the transmission and distribution electricity price in Yunnan Province has been approved and implemented by the national development and Reform Commission. Then, Yunnan Province accelerated the reform of power generation and utilization plan, released all large industrial users and all electricity to participate in the market competition, and released all hydropower plants, thermal power plants, wind farms and photovoltaic power plants that were put into operation after January 1, 2004 and 110 kV and above included in the provincial dispatching balance to participate in the market competition. All power users and power generation enterprises entering the market will cancel the base electricity quantity and catalog electricity price, and all electricity quantity and electricity price will be formed by the market mechanism

Yunnan's power market is among the most liberalized in the country, forming a good market pattern with orderly liberalization, diversified subjects and full competition. According to the statistical data, from 2014 to 2016, the accumulated trading electricity in the market in Yunnan Province was 108.8 billion kwh, reducing the power consumption cost of enterprises by 13.96 billion yuan; In the inter provincial market, 293.3 billion kwh of electricity was transmitted from the west to the East, including 29.7 billion kwh of market-oriented power transmission, which increased the income of power generation enterprises by 6.5 billion yuan and comprehensively reduced 48.1 billion kwh of waste water

in an interview, the person in charge of relevant government departments in Yunnan Province said that the achievements of Yunnan power reform in the past two years are obvious to all. The market-oriented trading volume and electricity price in Yunnan Province are becoming more and more stable. The dividends released by the electricity reform institute have injected continuous power into the steady economic growth and structural adjustment of Yunnan. The operating rate of industrial and mining enterprises in Yunnan has increased from more than 20% in 2014 to more than 60% in 2016

during his stay in Kunming, he paid a special visit to Yunnan Metallurgical Group Co., Ltd. The company's industrial development mainly includes five product series, including electrolytic aluminum, lead-zinc processing, titanium alloy and polysilicon, all of which are high-energy industries and are the largest power users in the region of Nanfang power company. The power consumption of the company in 2016 was 21.8 billion kwh, and the annual power consumption in 2017 was about 25billion kwh, of which electrolytic aluminum accounted for 90% of the power consumption of the whole group. According to lijunjie, deputy general manager of Yunye Huineng Energy Co., Ltd., in the production cost of electrolytic aluminum, the cost of electricity accounts for 35% of the total production cost. When the price of raw materials falls sharply, the cost of electricity will account for 45% of the total production cost. Therefore, electrolytic aluminum is very sensitive to electricity prices. Before the electricity market transaction, the electricity consumption of Yunye group company was based on the electricity price in the government catalogue, and the household electricity price was 0.52 yuan/kWh. After the company's total electricity volume entered the market transaction, the household electricity price was 0.33 yuan/kwh in 2016 and approximately 0.35 yuan/kwh in 2017. After the power reform, the power consumption cost of Yunye group decreased by nearly 4billion yuan per year, thus withstanding the pressure of international electrolytic aluminum overcapacity, rising raw material prices and falling finished product prices. The company turned losses into profits and realized an annual profit of 200million yuan. However, from the perspective of the national electrolytic aluminum industry, the electricity price of 0.35 yuan/kwh in Yunnan has no cost advantage. In Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Gansu and other provinces, most electrolytic aluminum enterprises have their own power plants, and the electricity price is about 0.2 yuan/kWh. However, Yunnan's advantage is hydropower aluminum, which consumes clean hydropower. This requires the state to further improve policies to promote the transfer of similar industries with high load capacity and low added value to southwest hydropower province. Li Junjie, deputy general manager, said: "from the perspective of power users, it is not that the lower the electricity price, the better. It is just that we hope that the electricity price will be within the range that the business development of the enterprise can bear. If we blindly reduce the electricity price, the unsustainable development of the power enterprise will be caused, and the ultimate damage will be the users. For the production-oriented entity enterprises, safe and stable power supply is the first."

electricity reform is the redistribution of interests. The establishment of the rules of the game and the redistribution of the cake will affect the interests of all parties. The demands of users and power generation enterprises are completely opposite. The interests of both sides are clear-cut. Users want zero electricity price. Power generation enterprises need high electricity price to recover costs. Two years after Yunnan power reform, when I visited Kunming, I heard more of the consensus reached among market players: through the continuous improvement of power market reform, power generation enterprises, power enterprises and power users have achieved common development

On August 25th, 2016, Kunming Electric Power Trading Center Co., Ltd. was officially listed and Yunnan electric power market management committee was established, which is one of the landmark events of Yunnan electric power reform and even China's electric power reform. Kunming electric power trading center is organized and prepared by Yunnan Provincial Energy Bureau, in which Yunnan Electric Power Co., Ltd. holds 50% of the shares, and determines the participation of power supply enterprises, user enterprises, power distribution enterprises, etc. through recruitment, competitive negotiation, etc., and is jointly initiated and established on a voluntary basis

Yang Qiang, general manager of Kunming Power Trading Center Co., Ltd., believes that the core content of the "Yunnan model" of power reform is to build an increasingly perfect, efficient, standardized, fair and just power trading market

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