Scientific development of the hottest green packag

2022-07-26
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Scientific development of green packaging design (4)

(2) how to improve the recovery rate of plastic packaging? At present, the recovery rate of lightweight packaging products such as plastic bags, plastic boxes, plastic bottles and foamed plastics is very low, which needs to be solved from two aspects of technology and policy. There are generally three methods for recycling plastics, namely, material (Mechanical) recycling, chemical (monomer or chemical component) recycling and energy (heat) recycling. How to choose depends on the comprehensive balance of technology, economy and environment. For plastic packaging with a large amount of mixed plastic wastes and toxic substances (such as pesticides, medical crystals, etc.), the material recycling method cannot be adopted, and the latter two methods should be adopted for recycling. Recycling plastic products from plastic wastes can save 85% - 90% of resin and 6% - 17% of processing energy. However, at present, the recycling rate is not high, less than 20% in Japan and 40% - 80% in Germany, but it has not reached the target. The main reason is that the plastics are too scattered, the varieties are mixed and difficult to separate, and some plastics are packaged as composite plastics, which is difficult to regenerate, affecting the recycling enthusiasm. It is necessary to seek new regeneration technologies with higher added value. In addition, the recovery cost is relatively high. For example, the recovery fee per ton in Germany is $340, the separation fee is $528, and the cleaning fee is $400. In order to encourage recycling, a certain recycling fee may be charged for these products. We should learn from foreign experience and establish a system of classification and mark management for plastic waste. For example, the United States has developed triangle recycling marks for seven different plastics, that is, add numbers in Mobius loop: 1 for pet, 2 for HDPE, 3 for PVC, 4 for LDPE, 5 for PP, 6 for PS, and 7 for others. It is required that the plastic packaging of all products should be marked with corresponding recycling marks, which brings great convenience for subsequent treatment. Plastic has the highest energy value among solid wastes, and its calorific value reaches 4400-11000kcal/kg. Therefore, the recycling of heat energy from plastic incineration is regarded as an important means of renewable resources in foreign countries. However, the incineration of PVC, EPS and other plastics will produce harmful gas, which is easy to burn and damage the furnace body. The equipment investment is large, and the treatment cost is up to more than $50/ton, so there are certain conditions. However, incineration is better than landfilling, and it can recover a considerable amount of energy. According to the prediction of foreign experts, the recycling rate of plastics may reach 40%; Among them, recycling and recycling will account for 42%, incineration for 26%, pyrolysis and oilization for 25% and others for 4%. The recycling rate of plastics in China is only about 5%, and most of them are abandoned as garbage, which not only wastes resources, but also pollutes the environment

(3) is it worth popularizing partially degradable plastics? According to the research of some units, it is considered that the partially degradable plastic made of starch and plastic will split into fragments below 0.5x0.5cm2 after 1-2 years, which has no obvious impact on the soil. However, whether it meets the requirements of environmental protection is worth further discussion

(4) who is responsible for the beer bottle explosion? Beer bottle is the packaging container with the highest recycling rate. In order to reduce the packaging cost, the brewery used the recycled beer bottles beyond the time limit, or caused micro cracks on the surface due to poor circulation, resulting in the final explosion of beer bottles. The solution is to strengthen supervision and improve the technical level of beer transportation packaging, and clarify the needs of producers. To solve the problem of beer packaging fundamentally, the development of new technologies such as lightweight bottles and surface strengthening should be paid more attention

(5) how to deal with other glass bottles? As the state forcibly closed a large number of short flat glass factories, which are large consumers of broken glass, and no unit purchased glass bottles except beer bottles, the recovery rate of glass bottles fell sharply, increasing the workload of waste transportation and burial. Glass is a kind of high-grade packaging container, which is easy to regenerate. Policies should be adopted to guide its reuse and regeneration. Relevant departments can take the lead to improve the reuse rate through the standardization of wine bottles. Local governments can support the establishment of production lines for producing high-grade building materials from broken glass and promote the recycling of glass bottles. The recycling and anti-counterfeiting of famous liquor bottles are also worth studying and solving

(6) how to solve the recycling of three piece cans?, Due to the light weight of the three piece tank and the soldering tin that is not conducive to furnace return, the steel plant is not very enthusiastic about the acquisition. The only way to improve the enthusiasm of recyclers is to collect fees and subsidies, and formulate management measures to force steel mills to improve their technical level and use three piece cans

(7) can the carton and the sample wooden case of manual hydraulic pressure tester be reused? At present, the most used cartons and wooden cases are disposable, and foreign countries are exploring ways to reuse them. For example, through ingenious design, cartons and wooden cases can be recycled at low cost, but it depends on the recognition of users. The packaging design concept should span from "cradle to grave" to "cradle to representation". For example, when designing the packaging, it is easy to turn the packaging into daily necessities such as furniture when it is discarded, so it will continue to play its role. With the development of online shopping and the popularity of door-to-door delivery service, manufacturers can use simple transportation packaging to send them to supermarkets, and supermarkets can use reusable packaging to directly send them to consumers' homes. This consumption mode may trigger a packaging revolution, which is worthy of timely policy guidance by relevant departments

(8) how to establish a pallet alliance? Foreign experience shows that if the pallets in the country can be mutually used, the cost of pallets can be reduced by about 20%. For this reason, it is necessary to formulate national unified specifications and standards for pallets, establish a pallet alliance, and implement an interoperable transportation mechanism. China Packaging Federation can play a leading role in the establishment of pallet alliance

5. policy

the healthy development of green packaging industry depends on the good policy support issued by the state. Because green packaging is a new thing, in a free competitive market economy, it is necessary for the government to give policy support at the beginning. In the prevention and control of "white pollution" and other issues, the state must integrate the mandatory management mechanism of "order control", establish environmental laws, regulations and standards, and implement them in the form of mandatory rewards and punishments. In order to develop China's green packaging industry, it is suggested to implement the following industrial policies:

(1) implement the environmental label certification system. In the world, three types of environmental signs introduced by ISO - type I, type II and type III are implemented. The type I sign specified in IS014000 is called "ecological sign", which is formulated according to the ecological conditions of each country, so there will be great differences between developed and underdeveloped countries. Type I sign is the "information sign" of the enterprise's "self declaration". The enterprise makes its own environmental policies, environmental data and information public to the society and accepts social supervision. Type III mark is the environmental "quality mark" of the product, which is marked with specific digital pointer and line segment at the same time, which is more intuitive and convenient. For the production enterprises that have been evaluated as green packaging products, the preferential policies of tax reduction and exemption for a certain period of time shall be implemented for their recognized green packaging products

(2) set up a special green packaging new technology development fund in the Ministry of science and technology. The specific key projects shall be determined jointly by the competent department and experts

(3) accelerate the pace of packaging legislation. We will implement the policy of compulsory recycling of packaging products and producer responsibility, implement the waste classification and recycling system, and establish regional authorized packaging recycling centers to promote the formation of packaging circular economy

(4) formulate preferential policies for green packaging of export products, and participate in international cooperation related to green packaging, so as to deal with the disputes of color trade barriers related to green packaging. In recent years, the impact of environmental barriers on China's foreign trade exports is equivalent to about 20% of the total exports of that year. According to incomplete statistics, about 9billion US dollars of exported mechanical and electrical products in China are prohibited from production and sales due to the restrictions of the International Convention on the protection of the ozone layer. Another 8billion US dollars of export products are affected by the foreign green label system. In case of any abnormal situation found in the 24

billion US dollars of export products, they must immediately shut down and cut off the power supply, report to the laboratory director and the manufacturer for maintenance, and shall not be disassembled. The machine products cannot meet the environmental protection packaging requirements of developed countries and be indirectly affected, This "green barrier" "It is gradually becoming a major obstacle for China's manufacturing industry, including the home appliance industry, to expand exports. The characteristics of green barriers are: A. they are reasonable to a certain extent. In terms of content, they emphasize the sustainable development of economy and trade. B. they are legitimate to a certain extent. In terms of formulation form, they are in line with the relevant WTO agreements to a certain extent. C. they are highly technical. That is, they are the standards and regulations for the production, packaging, storage and transportation, and use of products Both include more technical elements. d. It has certain pertinence. After careful design and research, some standards can be specially used to form green technical barriers to the products of some countries. For example, in order to prevent the import of British candy, France stipulates that the import of candy containing erythromycin is prohibited, while British candy is generally made with erythromycin dye. e. Greater flexibility. As the environmental protection standards of various countries are not unified, the number of national quality inspection centers that have been built or are to be built in Tongling City has reached two, so there is a large choice. Some countries have a wide range of regulations and standards, which makes people "sigh with admiration". For example, at present, the European community has more than 100000 technical standards, and Germany has about 15000 industrial standards. According to the results of Japan's survey in march1994, there were 8184 industrial standards and 397 agricultural product standards. f. High concealment. Many countries use the name of environmental protection to protect trade, so that exporters often can not foresee the specific content and changes, and it is difficult to adapt. s. Certain discrimination. Some countries often adopt different means according to their specific trade situation with other countries, which distorts the principle of national treatment. h. Severity of impact. Once the green barrier takes effect, its effect is often better than the tariff barrier. Moreover, such measures are easy to cause other countries to follow suit, spread from one country to multiple countries, and produce chain reactions. i. Contestability. Due to wide coverage, inconsistent standards, and interweaving of concealment and legitimacy, it is often easy to have differences and difficult to coordinate. Green trade barriers take various forms, mainly including green tariff system, green technology standard system, green environmental labeling system, green packaging system, green subsidy system, green health and quarantine system, etc. Among them, the green packaging system refers to that developed countries have formulated high and relatively complete standards for packaging materials, including waste recycling, reuse and regeneration systems. It is an environmental protection measure taken to prevent packaging materials and packaging wastes from causing harm to the environment, or packaging containers with unreasonable structure may damage the health of users. However, some too strict consideration of the green packaging system may hinder the control accuracy of developing countries: the upper limit +2% and the lower limit (1)% of foreign trade, leading to trade disputes

(5) various media throughout the country should vigorously publicize the concept of green packaging and set up "green packaging day" activities

6. conclusion

green packaging has become an irreversible trend in the packaging industry and world trade. To vigorously develop the green packaging industry, China has reached a consensus. Developed countries have made great progress in green packaging. We must keep up with this trend and make systematic efforts from the aspects of economy, technology, management, policy, law and consciousness

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